The effect of exposure to democratic institutions on tolerance: Brazil compared with other Latin American countries

I presented this paper on April 5, 2017, during the joint conference Citizens and the State: Public Opinion, Democracy, and Development in Brazil. The paper is a working in progress, and the section on Brazil still is in embryonic form. The R scripts to replicate the results are attached to the PDF of the full paper.


The effect of exposure to political institutions on demand for democracy in Africa, Latin America and Asia


I plan to submit this paper for publication in a week. An earlier version covering only the African continent was published on Afrobarometer Working Paper, n. 60.


Understanding why people demand democracy is important to an evaluation of the prospects for democratic stability. Most researchers examining this question have added national-level variables to multi-level regression models of survey data. This paper contributes to the investigation of why people demand democracy by adding new individual-level variables related to individual exposure to political institutions. Its main question is: Does exposure to democracy increase the legitimacy of democracy? Regression analysis results show evidence that exposure to democratic institutions—measured as the number of years lived under democracy—has a statistically significant, though substantively small, effect on demand for democracy. Overall, the results allow some optimism that as people live under democracy, they internalize its core values and improve its chances of consolidation.

Download the full paper (with the R code attached to the PDF).